01 December, 2016

Theory of Being -- II: Information Objects

This is the second post in the series where I'm trying to develop a theory of reality based on a concept of "Being". Click on the label "Theory of Being" on the right, to see all other posts in this series.

In the previous post, we had seen about uncertainties that lie at the heart of quantum mechanics, which gives it several possible interpretations. We had also seen a specific interpretation from David Bohm about a "non-local" hidden variable as a means of explaining quantum entanglement.

The "standard" interpretation of the quantum wave function that is widely adopted, is called the Copenhagen Interpretation. This states that the quantum wave function does not represent the objective state of reality, but rather, represents the observer's knowledge about the objective state of reality. When we do a measurement, it is not objective reality that collapses, but the uncertainty in the observer's knowledge.

This interpretation is consistent with the conventional, deterministic model of the universe, which is what Einstein ascribes to when he said, "God does not play dice."

In the conventional Newtonian worldview, the universe is inherently deterministic, where, if we know the states of every particle in the universe, we can determine how they will evolve in the future and work backwards into how they were in the past.

In other words, in the Western model, the universe is considered to be a machine -- a system of interacting parts that are completely indifferent and deterministic. The machine is just there -- it has no will of its own, and no purpose towards which it is working. The state of the machine at any point in time is simply a function of what happened in the past.

It is important to note the mechanistic worldview that forms the predominant hermeneutic framework for doing most part of physics. We will use the notion of a Machine, to form the underlying backdrop for contrasting it with Being.

It is not that Western worldview was always so mechanistic. Debates on Causality versus Teleology, have characterized Western philosophy since several centuries. Causality is the principle of cause and effect. As a philosophical theory, Causality states that the state of reality we see today is a result of what happened in the past. In contrast, Teleology is a theory of "purpose" or "goal". In a teleological worldview, the state of the world today can be explained by its teleological intentions -- where it intends to go.

The scientific worldview has largely favoured causality over teleology in constructing its models. Teleology conventionally requires us to imagine an entity that provides a goal for the universe, or to an anthropomorphic model for all objects -- like intentions, goals, desires, etc. Such kinds of elements appear too primitive, reminiscent of old tribal societies, and are usually rejected by modern (20th century) science.

But what if we can show that a teleological theory does not necessarily require an anthropomorphic interpretation of all objects? What if we can build a teleological theory without having to use explanations like, "Storms are an expression of anger by the Gods"? What if we can show that there exists an innate notion of goal or purpose for every physical system as an element of physics, rather than as a divine decree or as a divinely ordained moral code?

Hold on to this thought as well, as this debate on causality and teleology is very important for us in developing this theory of Being.


Scientists like Stephen Hawking have have criticized the overtly mechanized model of the Western scientific worldview.

If God does not "play dice" and the quantum wave function is simply the uncertainty of our observation, then there is some "hidden variable" that is causing this uncertainty. The question we will then have to ask is, what is this hidden variable and where is it coming from?

Unfortunately for Einstein, John Stewart Bell proves in his theorem that there cannot exist any localized hidden variable. No known element of physics (any form of energy) can cause the uncertainty of the quantum wave function while observation.

But the operative word in Bell's theorem is "localized" hidden-variable. Bell's theorem can still admit "non-local" hidden variables -- in other words, some form of non-physical entity that is not constrained by physical space-time, and can be in several places (and time) simultaneously. Hmm.. interesting, right?

And Bohm's theory that comes close to the concept of Being (to be developed in subsequent posts), is based on the non-local property of the hidden variable.

In contrast to Einstein, Hawking boldly rejects the mechanistic axiom of the Western scientific worldview and states, "God not only plays dice, but sometimes keeps the dice where we cannot find them." (The second part of his quote has to do with the loss of information in black holes, which is very interesting, but not directly relevant to us at the moment.) It is interesting for a scientist to be saying that our universe is basically a game played by the Gods.

His words have been interpreted by "believers" many of whom argue that Hawking has "proved" the existence of God -- even though no one seems to be bothered about what it means to prove that God "exists" when God is defined as the creator of existence. Existence is a very bounded notion and has a clear opposite notion of non-existence. The creator is supposed to be unbounded, yet we want the creator to "exist" within the boundaries of existence!

Anyway, despite this foray of a physics pioneer into the realm of religion, Professor Hawking has kept his scientific reputation intact.


Let us now look at yet another philosophical debate in the Western world -- about mind versus matter. The mind-matter dichotomy is used to distinguish between the reality of perception and the reality of cognition.

Matter constitutes physical reality, and elements of matter are known to be real (known to exist), because we have several sense organs to perceive them. I know for example that there is a cat next door, because I can hear it, I see it and recognize it to belong to a class of other similar objects labeled "Cat."

There are however, some objects that seem to exist purely in the mind. Consider the concept of a Prime Number. Prime Numbers have very specific properties, that we can "show" (by way of proof) to others -- as long as those others can think and communicate like us. For instance, a child and a dog may act in a similar fashion when we throw a ball at them. This shows that they can both perceive the ball and can communicate this perception to us. However, try explaining the concept of a Prime Number to both of them to see who can fetch us a Prime Number.. The dog would likely fail to recognize this object of the mind, where the child mostly succeeds.

But let us not laugh at the dog just yet. Dogs are known to perceive and communicate objects of the mind like our intent and emotional state, which even our closest cousins -- chimpanzees -- cannot.

Do these objects of the mind really exist or are they simply a figment of our imagination? Do we imagine Prime Numbers, or are they really there? The predominant philosophical framework today in the Western world, called Analytic Philosophy (developed by Moore and Russell, and considered to mark the philosophical foundations of modern scientific pursuit), considers objects of the mind to be as real (called as "simpliciter") as physical objects. Prime Numbers do exist, and several minds have found them independently. They existed even in the time of dinosaurs when there were no minds that could see them. They exist on Earth as well as on Mars or anywhere in the universe.

In other words, objects of the mind, which we will call Information Objects or Concepts, exist on their own in a realm of the universe that is not constrained by the laws of physics (energy). Hence, the concept of a Prime Number that Euclid discovered is the very same Information Object that was addressed by Riemann or Ramanujan or Goldbach at different points in time.

To clarify it further, Information Objects has the property of non-locality in physical space-time! They are not constrained to exist at a specific place at a specific time -- they exist everywhere at all times!

While Information Objects always exist, physical objects are "affected" by them in specific ways.

Sub-atomic particles are known to be indistinguishable from one another. Unlike macro elements of matter like say zinc and carbon, every electron looks like every other electron. An electron from Zinc may get shared into a carbon atom, but it won't be treated like a foreign body in the carbon atom.

However, there is a way by which electrons can be distinguished -- by their information content like orbits, orbital and spin, that influence how they operate. All electrons having a certain value for their spin (say -1/2) basically have the same Information Object affecting them, and basically have exactly the same affect due to this information object. This affect may of course, be suppressed, blended with or compounded by other Information Objects that are acting the electron.

When we recognize Information Objects as first-class entities of the universe (in a non-physical realm), we can think of developing a theory of reality that includes the interplay between physical (energy) objects and information objects. For instance, the non-local hidden variable that can explain quantum entanglement, can be an Information Object rather than a physical object. When two sub-atomic particles collide and fly away in opposite directions in the speed of light, they can be seen as being attached to the same Information Object that has the exact same affect on both particles, thus giving this spooky action at a distance.

Let me stop this post on this note.

End notes: We are now ready to imagine a universe comprising of two realms -- the Energy realm and the Information realm. The former is predominantly characterized by causality driven by physical conservation laws that we know very well.

But, what drives the Information realm? Are there any laws that determine how the realm of information affects the realm of energy? We may be in too premature a stage to talk about laws, but at least, are there patterns in the ways by which information affects energy?

I would like to contend that there are indeed definite patterns in the interaction between these two realms. Optimization seems to be an important driver of the Information realm, giving information dynamics, a teleological characteristic. Causality and teleology, far from being an either-or dichotomy, seems to be intricately intertwined in the way our universe operates. 


abhi said...

How are your information objects related to Landauer's Information? He says that rather than being abstract, information is always tied to a physical representation.

Srinath Srinivasa said...

I've come across this paper earlier. The main problem I see with it is that "Information is a physical object" seems to be treated as a postulate. And the author seems to equate "information" with the "representation of information", which can only happen in the physical world.

The fallacy in that is that, representation is nominal and not objective. The representation ೮ represents the quantity 8 for people who know how to read Kannada. For others, it is just a nice, decorative symbol.

Analytic philosophy on the other hand, treats all conceptual objects as simpliciter. i, e, pi, and all mathematical objects always existed, except they were not discovered by any mind.

But I see a point that Landauer is trying to make. He seems to suggest that the nature of information (physical information, or information represented in physical form) is rooted in the laws of physics. Which is somewhat the point I'll be making about Being theory. When information interfaces with the physical world, it introduces an element of Optimization into conventional Newtoniam mechanics and makes Beings out of Particles.

Abhilasha Aswal said...

Interesting! I think I see what you are saying. This paper is perhaps making a similar argument. Looking forward to future posts in this series.

Srinath Srinivasa said...

Thanks for sharing. As is evident from the last two comments, the physical (or otherwise) nature of information is of intense scientific interest. I've tried to argue that information is not physical, although it is represented in various physical forms. Another subtle difference is that perception is not cognition. Perception is our ability to recognize physical entities, while cognition can recognize even non-physical entities.

Lekkala Reddy said...

Is it correct to say that we discover Information Objects through:
Consciousness or
Dream or

Is there any other way?